Planned Unit Development
A PUD, is both a type of building development as well as a regulatory process. A PUD is a designed grouping of varied and compatible land uses, such as housing, recreation, commercial centers, and industrial parks, all within one contained development or subdivision.
The origins of PUDs in the new American communities can be traced to British movements during the 1950?s. The developments in Britain?s new communities dealt with the locations of industrial elements and how they were publicly dictated before building ever began in order to uphold an economic base. However, in America, privately controlled communities often had to attract industry after the residential sectors had been built and occupied.
The newest forms of the Planned Unit Development in America were found shortly after World War II in the Levittowns and Park Forest as whole communities within the limits and orbits of large metropolitan centers. The first zoning evidence of PUD was created by Prince Georges County, Maryland in 1949. It "permit[ed] the development of a large tract of land as a complete neighborhood unit, having a range of dwelling types, the necessary local shopping facilities and off-street parking areas, parks, playgrounds, school sites, and other community facilities," (Burchell 43). Alexandria, Virginia, in 1952, as an amendment to its city code, provided for a "Community Unit Plan" with the intent to provide for planned community facilities and open space development with new residential building. Finally, one of the first modern uses of the actual term Planned Unit Development appeared in San Francisco?s ordinance in 1962.